Digital 3D Stereo Guide
Table of Contents
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Introduction                                                                   9


Chapter 1

    Basics of Digital 3D Stereo                                    11



            Aligning the Stereo Pairs

            Viewing Stereograms:

   Parallel & How to view

   Cross-View & How to view

   Anaglyph & How to view

   Mirror & How to view


   Pulfrich Effect


Figure: Home Made Slide-bar

Figure: Wagon Bones, Parallel view

Figure: Gold Miner, Cross-View

Figure: Black Rhino, mirror view


 Chapter 2

     Vertical & Rotational Alignment, SPM                22

Stereo Rule 1

Stereo Rule 2

Using SPM to Correct for Rule 2

Figure: Sancho Panza. Right image is Upper

Figure: Golden Eagle. One image is rotated


 Chapter 3

     Aligning & Setting the Window, SPM                  29

Near Point Object

3-R’s Rule

Putting the Entire Image at or Behind the Stereo Window Plane

Setback Aesthetics

Identical Image Dimensions

Stereo Rule 3

Cropping the Image in SPM

Figure: Hole in the Wall


Chapter 4

     Window Violations                                                35

Treacherous Ground

What is a Window Violation?

Curing Window Violations

Hiding Window Violations

Stereo Rule 4

Figure: Titanic with Window Violation

Figure: Titanic, No Window Violation

Figure: Skull

Figure: Frame Manipulation Avoids WV


Chapter 5

     Magnification Disparity                                         43

Causes of Magnification Disparity

Changed zoom

Lens distortion

Dual Image Lenses and Devices

Changed distance to subject

Correcting Magnification Disparity Using SPM

Correcting Trapezoidal Magnification Disparity     Using SPM

Correcting Magnification Disparity Using Photoshop


Chapter 6

     Visual Confusion (Retinal Rivalry)                      48

Monocular Objects

Objects Moving Between Exposures

Color and Brightness Disparity

Preventing Visual Confusion (Retinal Rivalry)

Tips for Curing Visual Confusion Problems

The SPM Clone Brush


Chapter 7

     Aligning the Stereo Window

     With Photoshop                                                     54

Loading Images into the Work Area

Making the Image Level

Pivot Point Alignment

Rotation Alignment

Correcting Magnification Disparity

Correcting Trapezoidal Magnification Disparity

Setting the Stereo Window


Figure: Pivot Point aligned

Figure: Image ready to crop

            Finishing the Stereogram


Chapter 8

     Cha-cha Stereo –

     Do You Wanna Dance?                                         65

Cha-cha Stereo and Its Attendant Problems

Time Lapse

Moving Clouds

Errors in Application of Chosen Stereo Base

Rotation of Camera

Tilt, Upward or Downward

Elevation Changes (Non-horizontal Parallax)

Distance Changes


Zoom changes

Auto focus errors

Auto exposure errors

On camera flash problems

How to Do the Dance

Camera Protocol


Wide Cha-cha

Twin Tripod Cha-cha


Figure: Aluminum Slide-Bar

Figure: Short Wooden Slide-Bar

Figure: 40mm Wooden Slide-Bar

Figure: Slide-Bar, End Detail

Figure: Slide-Bar, Detail of Underside


Chapter 9

     Avoiding Image Degradation                               76

The Camera

JPEG Deterioration

Resize and Compress


Chapter 10

     Calculating the Stereo Base                                 81

What is Stereo Base?

The Separation Factor

Conditions Affecting the Stereo Base Calculation

Total Scene Depth

Focal Length of Viewing Method

Focal Length of the Camera Lens

Cropping Changes the Focal Length

Stereo Base for Dummies

Practical Application Example:

The Bottom Line – Keep It Simple

Excessive Delta

Other Considerations

            The Whole Formula (if you want it)


Chapter 11

     Creating Anaglyphs                                               91

What is an Anaglyph?



The Concept of Color Channels

Making Anaglyphs in Photoshop


Reducing Ghosts

Soft Window Violations in Anaglyphs


Chapter 12

     Example Workflow                                                98


Chapter 13

     Using Photoshop Actions                                   102

Create Stereo Pairs . . . Blazing Fast

The “Combined” Image

Automating the Mechanical Workup

Creating an Action

Making a Parallel 3D Pair

Making Cross-eyed Stereo Pairs 

Making an Anaglyph        

Additional Functions

The Batch Function

Action Files Included

Actions Tips


Chapter 14

     Twin-Cams and Split Frames                             118

Twin Cams, the Theory

     Figure: Twin 35mm, 8cm Base

     Figure: Twin 35mm 20cm Base

Four Ways to Make a Digital Twin-Cam System

            Split Frames, the Theory

Loreo LIAC  (Lens In A Cap)

                 Figure: Loreo LIAC

                 Figure: Digital LIAC, Cropped Stereo

                 Figure: Digital LIAC, Un-cropped Original


                 Figure: 3D Stereo Advantage V1000

Mounting Two Digi-Cams on a Simple Bar


Chapter 15

     Miscellaneous Stereo Tips                                 128

Stereo from 2D Video

Video Stereo with a Single Camera


Chapter 16

     Phantograms                                                        130

Photography Steps

Creating the Phantogram in SPM


Stereo Photo Glossary                                             134